There are several classifications in the Gironde:
• The 1855 classification, gathering growths from Médoc (reds), Sauternes (liquoreux whites), and one growth from Graves (red).
• The Graves classification (reds and whites, first established in 1953).
• The Saint-Émilion classification (reds, first established in 1954).
• The classification of Crus bourgeois de Médoc (reds, first established in 1932).
• The classification of Crus artisans (reds, first established in 2002).
A cru is the synthesis of nature and the work of man — on one hand, it can only be produced on terroirs with a poor, well-drained soil, into which the roots of the vine plant may dive deeply to find the nutrients they lack on the surface, thus capturing the mineral wealth of the earth. On the other hand, it also reflects the efforts of men who followed each other through generations, devoting themselves to quality.
Bordeaux grands crus appeared long before they were classified: Château Haut-Brion appeared in 1609, followed by Château Margaux in 1703, then by Château Lafite and Château Latour. From then on, the number of these grands crus increased and their quality was asserted. They are now identified in four wine regions: Médoc, Graves, Saint-Émilion and Sauternes-Barsac. It should be pointed out that not being classified does not prevent an appellation — like Pomerol — or a wine — such as Petrus — to be considered first-rate.